Stack Exchange and Taproot Optech


The Bitcoin Optech Newsletter provides readers with a high-level summary of the most important technical news about Bitcoin, along with resources to help them learn more. To help our readers stay up to date with Bitcoin, we are republishing the latest issue of this newsletter below. Remember to subscribe to receive this content straight to your inbox.

This week’s newsletter includes our regular sections with the best questions and answers from the last month from the Bitcoin Stack Exchange, our latest column on preparing the taproot, a list of new software releases and candidate releases, and descriptions of the changes. notables to the popular Bitcoin infrastructure. Software.


No major news this week.

Bitcoin Stack Exchange Selected Questions & Answers

Bitcoin stack exchange is one of the first places Optech contributors look for answers to their questions, or when we have some free time to help curious or confused users. In this monthly column, we highlight some of the most voted questions and answers posted since our last update.

Taproot prep # 6: learn taproot by using it

One week series on how developers and service providers can prepare for the upcoming activation of taproot at block height 709,632.

Almost two years ago, James Chiang and Elichai Turkel produced a open source repository Jupyter notebooks for a series of Optech workshops aimed at training developers on taproot Technology. Workshops tenuous in San Francisco, New York and London received positive reviews, but travel restrictions prevented subsequent in-person workshops.

Since the publication of the Jupyter Notebooks, the taproot has undergone several changes. However, taproot support has also been merged into Bitcoin Core, allowing laptops to drop their reliance on a custom branch of Bitcoin Core. The developer Elle Mouton kindly updated the notebooks for all of these changes, which again makes this a great way to quickly develop hands-on experience working with taproot algorithms and data types.

The notebooks are divided into four sections:

  • Section 0 contains a notepad that helps you set up your environment, covers the basics of elliptical curve cryptography, and teaches you about labeled hashes used in BIPs. 340, 341, and 342.
  • Section 1 guides you through the creation signature schnorr. Once you master them you learn to create multi-signatures with the MuSig protocol.
  • Section 2 gives you an experience of all aspects of the taproot. It starts with a review of the principles of segwit v0 transactions, then helps you create and send segwit v1 (taproot) transactions. Applying the knowledge from Section 1, you create and then use a taproot output using MuSig. The concept of key adjustment is introduced and you learn how the taproot allows you to use its public key to validate data. Now that you can create engagements, you find out tapscripts– how they differ from legacy scripts and segwit v0, and how to engage in a tapscripts tree. Finally, a small notebook introduces huffman encoding to create optimal script trees.
  • Section 3 provides an optional exercise in creating a taproot output that changes the required signatures plus the output is not spent, which allows the output to be spent efficiently under normal circumstances but also provides a safeguard. robust in case of problems.

The notebooks include many programming exercises that are relatively easy but will allow you to actually learn the material presented. The author of this column, who is not a great coder, was able to complete the notebooks in six hours and only regretted not having taken the time to learn earlier.

Releases and candidates for release

New versions and candidate versions for popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects. Please consider upgrading to new versions or helping to test candidate versions.

Notable changes to code and documentation

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, C-Eclair, Flash, LND, Flash Rust, libsecp256k1, Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI), Rusting bitcoin, BTCPay server, Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIP), and Lightning.

  • Bitcoin core # 22387 limits the average number of advertised addresses it will process from each peer to one every 10 seconds. Any address exceeding the limit will be ignored. Peers can be whitelisted to allow them to exceed this limit, and any address advertisement that the node explicitly requests from its peers is also excluded from the limit. The limit is estimated to be around 40 times higher than the current rate at which a Bitcoin Core node advertises addresses.
  • C-Éclair # 4669 fixes several bugs in its LN offers analysis and validation logic. It also returns a previously created offer that has not yet expired if the user tries to create a new offer with the same parameters; this can be particularly useful because offers are not created by default with an expiration date.
  • C-Éclair # 4639 adds experimental support for liquidity ads offered in BOLTS # 878. This allows one node to use the LN gossip protocol to advertise its willingness to lease its funds for a period of time, giving other nodes the ability to purchase inbound capacity that allows them to receive instant payments. A node that sees the advertisement can simultaneously pay for and receive the inbound capacity using a double funding open channel. While there is no way to require the ad node to actually route payments, the proposal incorporates a proposal also intended to be used in Lightning pool this prevents the advertiser from using their money for other purposes until the end of the agreed rental period, so refusing to route would only deprive them of the opportunity to earn a forwarding charge. The following table compares liquidity ads to the similar Lightning Pool market described in Bulletin # 123.
  • PIF # 1072 merge information BIP48 titled “Multi-Script Hierarchy for Multi-Sig Portfolios”. The document describes a widely deployed derivation standard for wallets participating in multi-signature configurations based on the m/48' prefixes and details the six levels of derivation used by the diagram.
  • PIF # 1139 add BIP371 with a specification of new fields of use PBST (both version 0 and version 2) with taproot transactions. To see Bulletin # 155 for the previous discussion.

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